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2013年陕西成人学位英语真题阅读理解解析(一)

来源:陕西成人高考网  【网聚权威资讯 心系考生信仰】  2014-01-11 18:03:15  浏览量:1533

      Part I Reading Comprehension (30%)
  Directions:There are three passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A,B,C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
  Passage 1
  Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.
  What exactly is a lie?Is it anything we say which we know is untrue?Or is it something more than that?For example,suppose a friend wants to borrow some money from you. You say “I wish I could help you but I'm short of money myself.” In fact,you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not paying his debt and you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. Is this rally a lie?
  Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying. (76)According to him,women are better liars than men,particularly when telling a “white lie”,such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful. However,this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies,such as making a promise which they have no intension of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at:the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way.
  Research has also been done into the way people's behavior changes in a number of small,apparently unimportant ways when they lie. It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time,they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual. To the trained observer they are saying “I wish I were somewhere else now.” They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often,in particular the nose. One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure. The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressures make it itch.
  Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book Manwatching calls “the mouth cover”。(77)He says there are several typical forms of this,such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers,touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth. Such a gesture can be understood as an unconscious attempt on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying.
  Of course,such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth,or moving about in a chair cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation. It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things, and in particular the context in which the lie is told.
  1. According to the passage,a “white lie” seems to be a lie
  A. that other people believe
  B. that other people don't believe
  C. told in order to avoid offending someone
  D. told in order to take advantage of someone
  2. Research suggests that women
  A. are better at telling less serious lies than men are
  B. generally lie far more than men do
  C. lie at parties more often than men do
  D. often make promises they intend to break
  3. Researchers find that when a person tells lies
  A. his blood pressure increases measurably
  B. he looks very serious
  C. he tends to make some small changes in his behavior
  D. he uses his unconscious mind
  4. One reason people sometimes rub their noses when they lie is that
  A. they wish they were somewhere else
  B. the nose is sensitive to physical changes caused by lying
  C. they want to cover their mouths
  D. they are trying to stop themselves from telling lies
  5. The tone of this passage tells us that the writer
  A. hates to lie
  B. enjoys lying
  C. often tells a lie
  D. tries to analyze lying
  一、文章总体结构分析
  全篇围绕“谎言”这一主题展开叙述:第一段通过举例及疑问的方式探讨究竟什么才算是谎言;第二段介绍了南加州大学的Jerald Jellison教授做过一个关于说谎的科学研究的结论,即男人和女人说谎是不同的,而男人更可能说更严重的谎言;第三段则介绍了说谎时行为上的一些细微的改变;第四段主要讲述了说谎时“封嘴”这一具体行为;最后又补充说明以上举止并不能构成讲话者正在说谎的证据,而是一系列的东西,特别是说谎者所说的谎言本身。
  二、试题具体分析
  1. 「答案」C 本题考查的是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第一、二段。第一段中“you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this.”,第二段又用举例的方法解释了white lie的含义。这个例子就是“such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really think it looks awful.”
  2. 「答案」A 本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应文章的第二段。该段比较了男人和女人说谎的不同,而且男人更可能说更严重的谎言。参见第二段中句子“Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies,……”这里的比较就是与前一句中女人撒谎相比。
  3. 「答案」C 本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于第三段第一句:Research has also been done into the way people's behavior changes in a number of small,apparently unimportant ways when they lie. 同样有研究侧重于当人们说谎时他们行为的一些细小的,明显的不重要的改变,很容易看出答案C与该句符合。
  4. 「答案」B 本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于第三段最后一句:The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressures make it itch. 鼻尖对这样的变化非常敏感,血压的增加使得它发痒,即与B选项吻合。
  5. 「答案」D 此题考查的是考生对整篇短文的观点的理解。文章首先讲到男人女人说谎的不同,而后又分析说谎时人们行为方式的变化等等,所以说文章是在分析说谎。其他选项错误。
  三、文章长难句分析与佳句赏析
  1.In fact,you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not paying his debt and you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. 实际上,你并不缺钱,但是你的这位朋友却有欠钱不还的习惯而你又不想通过提醒他这点而伤害他的感情。句子结构分析:you are not short of…but your friend is in the habit of…and you don't want to…by…;short of…缺乏…;in the habit of…养成…习惯;pay one's deb还…的债;remind sb of…提醒某人使想起…。
  2.He says there are several typical forms of this,such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers,touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth. 他说有几种动作形式,例如用手指掩一部分嘴,摸上嘴唇或者一个手指支在嘴角。句子结构分析:He says there are several typical forms of this,such as…;cover…with…用…遮盖。
  四、核心词汇
  short of…缺乏…;in the habit of…养成…习惯;pay one's deb还…的债;remind sb of…提醒某人使想起…;liar惯于说谎者;awful糟糕的;fulfill履行,实现,完成;sensitive敏感的,灵敏的;give…away出卖…;unconscious无意识的,不省人事;attempt尝试,努力,试图;rub擦,摩擦;context上下文;itch发痒;
  五、全文翻译
  谎言究竟是什么?是说一些我们知道不是真实的事情?还是甚于这些?例如,假设一个朋友向你借钱。你说“我希望能帮助你,但我现在自己也缺钱。”实际上,你并不缺钱,但是你的这位朋友却有欠钱不还的习惯而你又不想通过提醒他这点而伤害他的感情。这是一个真正的谎言吗?
  南加州大学的Jerald Jellison教授做过一个关于说谎的科学研究。研究显示女人比男人更善于说谎,特别是说“善意的谎言”,例如在一个派对上一个女人称赞另一个女人的衣服而实际上她认为那衣服很难看。然而这只是故事的一方面。其他的研究者说男人更倾向于说一些较严重的谎言,例如承诺他们从来没想过要实现的承诺。政客和商人似乎特别擅长于此类谎言:说谎者可从谎言中获利或在某些方面得到好处。
  同样有研究侧重于当人们说谎时他们行为的一些细小的,明显的不重要的改变。结果表明如果他们当时坐着,那么他们会更多的在椅子中移动。他们对受过训练的观察者承认“我希望我是在另一个地方”。他们也会更多的触摸脸部的某些部分,特别是鼻子。一个解释是因为说谎会使血压产生微小的变化。鼻尖对这样的变化非常敏感,血压的增加使得它发痒。
  另一个将说谎者出卖的举动是在Desmond Morris的书《Manwatching》中提到的“封嘴”。他说有几种动作形式,例如用手指掩一部分嘴,摸上嘴唇或者一个手指支在嘴角。这样的行为可以看作是一种阻止说谎者继续说谎的下意识举动。
  当然,这些举止,例如摸鼻子或者掩盖嘴唇,或者在椅子中移动都不能作为讲话者正在说谎的证据。只是这些行为在这样的情况下更容易发生。不是一个举止就可以将说谎者出卖,而是一系列的东西,特别是说谎者所说的谎言本身。

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